Is Taqiyyah An Islamic Concept?

First: What is Taqiyyah? Linguistically: it is to protect. Technically: it is presenting outwardly something that is different

First: What is Taqiyyah?

Linguistically: it is to protect.

Technically: it is presenting outwardly something that is different from what one believes inwardly.

Second: What does it mean in Islam?

To the mainstream Islamists; Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa‘ah (Sunnis): Taqiyyah – as an idea or concession is to be used only in extreme circumstances and on temporary basis to spare one’s life. According to Sunnies, it is something to be resorted to when one has no other choice, and it is an extraordinary measure to be used only in times of extreme necessity.

Qurtubi said: “The basic principle concerning taqiyyah is that it is not permissible unless there is the fear of death, severing of a limb or extreme harm, and there is no report to the contrary as far as we know, except that which was reported from Mu‘aadh ibn Jabal among the Sahaabah and from Mujaahid among the Taabi‘een.”

Ibn al-Qayyim [may Allah have mercy on him] a prominent Islamic scholar said:

“Taqiyyah means saying something contrary to what one believes, for fear of harm that may befall him if he does not resort to taqiyyah.”

Third: Islamic legal ruling for using Taqiyyah:

The basis for it (Taqiyyah) being permissible as an exception in extreme conditions is the verse in which Allah, may He be exalted, says:

Let not the believers take the disbelievers as Awliya’ (supporters, helpers, etc.) instead of the believers, and whoever does that will never be helped by Allah in any way, except: if you indeed fear a danger from them  []

The words “except if you indeed fear a danger from them” mean: except in the case of one who fears their evil (harm) in some countries (places) or at some times. In that case, he may dissimulate (use taqiyyah) by changing his outward behavior (to protect himself from their evil), without changing what he believes and intends in his heart. For example, al-Bukhaari narrated that Abu’d-Darda’ said: [We smile in the faces of some people when our hearts are cursing them (inwardly).]  [Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 2/30]

According to Sunnies lying is one of the attributes of the hypocrites. The Messenger of Allah teaches Muslims that a person may keep on lying and persist on lying until he is recorded with Allah as a liar and a person may keep on being truthful and persist on being truthful until he is recorded with Allah as a truthful person.

According to Sunnies in order for taqiyyah to be permissible, there should be fear of harm and the individual should not have any other means of avoiding harm except by resorting to taqiyyah.  It is also stipulated that the harm that is feared should be of a type that is extremely hard to bear. The one who resorts to taqiyyah should also note that if he has any other option that does not involve committing a haram (forbidden) action, then he must choose it. He should also note that he should not indulge in the concession to such an extent that it goes beyond the limits of taqiyyah to the level of negligence by committing haram actions after achieving what is necessary.

Only a Shiaah group that is Ithna-Ash‘ari Raafidis see taqiyyah as presenting outwardly something that is different from what one believes inwardly, as an act of religious devotion.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah “may Allah have mercy on him” said: (The Raafidis are the most ignorant and mendacious of sects, and the furthest removed from any knowledge of the texts [Quran and Sunnah] or rational evidence. They regard Taqiyyah as one of the basic principles of their religion, and they tell lies about Ahl al-Bayt [the Prophet’s family], the extent of which is known only to Allah.)

He also said: (As for the Raafidis, the basis of their innovation is heresy and of the deliberate lying that is widespread among them)

Last Conclusion:

Islamic scholars are unanimously in agreement that Taqiyyah is a concession that is allowed in the case of necessity.   Ibn al-Mundhir said: “They (scholars) unanimously agree that if a person is forced to say words of disbelief, to the extent that he fears for his life, and he speaks words of disbelief when his heart is content with faith, he is not to be deemed a disbeliever .But the one who chooses to be steadfast in this situation is better.”

Ibn Battaal said: “They (scholars) unanimously agree that the one that is forced to disbelieve but chooses to be killed (without saying the words of disbelief) will have the greatest reward from Allah.”

Is taqiyyah an Islamic concept?