Why did God choose the “Arab peninsula” to reveal Qur’an, the last message of God sent to all mankind through Gabriel, peace be upon him, to Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him?
Situation around Arab Peninsula at That Time
At that time There were two main powers and over-controlling luxurious countries namely the Romans, and Persians. They were famous for their philosophical thinking, luxury, and war powers, beside Greece and India that were famous for philosophical and legendary heritage, etc.
As for Persia, in the mid of the fifth century A.D. they had contradicting and illusionary corrupt ideas of philosophical and religious nature. That led to incredible corruption and ethical deviations such as Zoroastrian religion which was mainly embraced by men in authority. It recommended and preferred, for example, marriage to the mother, daughter or sister. Another philosophy instructed was to allow sharing women, and to give the right to authorities to take peoples’ money believing it is the same as they share fire, water and air. (1)
Concerning the Romans, they were more concerned with colonial wars and ambitions. They were evolving and changing Christianity so as to suit their extreme desires and interests. While Greece and India were overwhelmed with belief in the wordy inherited legends that took them to no progress or useful result. While the Indians, as agreed by all historians, agreed that they led to to more moral and ethical deterioration, with their neighbors starting from this age of the sixteenth century A.D. (2)
Reasons for Choosing Arab Peninsula:
About the Arab peninsula, “it was quiet, and far and even isolated from” all these illusions, disturbance and false beliefs.
No Ethical Deviations or Philosophies
Firstly and most importantly, it had none of these ethical deviations or immorality. In addition, it had not adopted, started or even known any sort of philosophy neither as immoral as the Persians’ or the Romans,’ nor any sort of philosophy whatsoever. They also had no colonial avidities or interests like the Romans. Moreover, they did not adopt any extreme philosophical or argumentative methodology or approaches like the Greek that would let them be finally “a prey to legends and illusions.” (3)
Nature of People in Arab Peninsula
Secondly, their nature was mainly innate and pure. “It did not fuse into any changed forms; you could find the innate human and humane nature in them very apparent, and greatened traditions strongly as in (loyalty, helping the others, generosity, independence and chastity). ” (4)
However, they had sort of ignorance of how to follow these great values correctly. So for example, Arab would kill their children for the sake of chastity. They could waste all money for the sake of generosity and hospitality.
And God later described it in Qur’an:
And remember Him, as He has guided you, for indeed, you were before that among those astray.” [Qur’an 2: 198] (5)
Thirdly, as for the geographical position, the Arab peninsula lies in the mid of the world. In fact, they were honored by having the Sacred House of God, except that they put idols to be worshipped in addition to God. This is because they forgot the message and guidance sent by Prophet Abraham calling for believing in One God with no partner or mediator.
Relation between Illiteracy & Revelation
Fourthly, they were illiterate which made them by no doubt not able to read other cultures or even be, as falsely claimed, any sort of writers of Qur’an, the book of God and last revelation through Gabriel, the angel, to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Let alone the fact that they were incapable to imitate Qur’an which they strongly opposed. To prove this, it would have been a tribal pride to allege the revelation. However, even the opposition to Prophet Muhammad came from his own people and tribe, beside other tribes in the Arab peninsula. Also, none can claim it is a natural philosophical or mental development or phenomena, since they were extremely isolated from all surroundings and they were also illiterate and only innate honoring the inherited great values and traditions as previously mentioned.
However, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) later on when the message settled sent messengers to all the world with the word of Islam and last revelation “Qur’an” like the Romans and the Persians, etc. Which is internationally proved by history.
So, in a word Islam was revealed in the Arab peninsula for all the valuable characteristics previously mentioned, that kept it pure, innate and more ready for the revelation as compared to all other corrupted surroundings. Let alone the good values they kept and their geographical position that helped it be the cradle and center to reach all the world around.
(1) Book: Jurisprudence of prophetic biography, by Imam Muhammad Albuty (as translated).
(2) The previously mentioned reference.
(3) The previously mentioned reference.
(4) The previously mentioned reference.
(5) Verse (2:198) of Qur’an (English interpretation of meaning).