Muslim Scientists: 11 Muslim Scientists Changed The World

Science is a way to life, but what did muslims add to that way?Muslim scholars added and positioned

Science is a way to life, but what did muslims add to that way?
Muslim scholars added and positioned the foundations of modern science to a large extent. To know how is that, let’s go for short trip by the time machine to visit some of the Muslim scientists who made the greatest contributions to our modern life.

1- Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi


  • He designed the subject of Algebra and Algorithm which was developed by others.
  • The word algorithm is derived from his name.
  • His book (ḥisāb al-Jabr wal-Muqābala) ( The calculation of Integration and Equation) was used until the 16th century as the principal textbook of European universities.
  • He invented the concept of zero or (sifr). Thus, creating a revolution in mathematics.
  • This directed to improvements in the calculation of the programs of the worlds and progress in the fields of astronomy and geography. (1)

2- Ghiyath Al-din Al-Kashi


  • He functioned on the theory of numbers and techniques of computations
  • In his book (Miftah ul Hissab) or (Calaulators’ key), he defined the algorithm for finding the 5th root of any number.
  • This book was taught in the Persian school until the 17th century.

3- Abu Al Wafa Muhammad al Buzjani


  • He was the first person to show the generality of the sine theorem relative to spherical triangles.
  • He announced the secant and cosecant for the first time
  • He added to a solution of geometrical problems in geometry

4- Abu Abdullah al Battani


  • He was the first to substitute the practice of Greek chords
  • He was the first to cultivate the concept of cotangent and provided their table in degrees.

In the field of physics many notable scholars can be mentioned, among these scholars  are:

5- Al Hasan Ibn Al Haytham


  • Through his Book of Optics (Kitab al-Manazir) and its Latin translation (De Aspectibus), his ideas influenced the European scholars and In 17th century.
  • Europe cracked the problems framed by Al Hasan Ibn Al Haytham known as Al-Hazan’s problem
  • Today, many consider him a pivotal figure in the history of optics and the “Father of modern Optics” because his discoveries in optics and vision overturned centuries of misunderstanding

6- Abu Rayhan al Biruni


  • He determined the specific density of 18 types of precious stones and defined the ratios between their density.
  • He established the rule related to the specific density of the body.
  • (Shadows) was one of most important Al- Beruni’s text which was an important source of our knowledge of the history of mathematics, astronomy and physics.

7- Abu al-Fath Abd al-Rahman Mansour al-Khazini


  • His theories have been still calculated in the field on kinetics at schools and universities up till now .
  • Among these theories are the theory of Obliquity and Inclination and the theory of Impulse. (2)

In the field of medicine and pharmacy, Muslim scholars left behind a wealth of knowledge in their works, which were used to advance modern day medicine. Among these scholars were:

8- Abu Ali Ibn Sina

He is better recognized to the west as Avicenna. Achievements:

  • He wrote 246 books by himself.
  • Two of his most important books are
    kitab al shifa (the book of healing) containing 20 volumes
    al qanun fit tipp( the canons of medicine) which was the principal guide for medical science in the west from 12th to 17th century
  • He was the first to describe meningitis.
  • He was the first to prepare ironic contributions to anatomy, gynecology and child health.
  • He discovered the relation between the psychology and health.

9- Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi


  • He was the first to announce the usage of alcohol for medical purposes.
  • He was an expert surgeon and the first to use opium for anesthesia.
  • He also anticipated therapies first on animals in order to assess their effects and side effects.

10- Abul Qasim al-Zahrawi


  • He is recognized as Albucasis to the West.
  • He was the first to use silk thread for sewing wounds.
  • He wrote the medical encyclopedia al-Tasrif li man ajaz an-il-talif, which enclosed 30 segments of surgical facts and drawings of 200 surgical tools, maximum of which he designed himself.

11- Al-Idrisi


  • His major involvement was in medicinal plants which he labeled in many books, such as Kitab al-Jami-li-Sifat Ashtat al-Nabatat
  • He composed plants and data not described previously and compiled this to the subject of botany.
  • Al-Idrisi also prepared a unique assistance to topography, as connected to economics, physical factors and cultural aspects.
  • He penned geographical encyclopedias, the largest called Rawd-Unnas wa Nuzhalat Nafs (Pleasure of Men and Delight of Souls). (3)

Islam encourages people to seek and increase their knowledge, and it disparages and warns against ignorance. “… Allah will exalt in degree those of you who believe and those who have been granted knowledge.” []

Jules La Beaume,the French thinker, intellectual and writer said:

The people of the world came to acquire science and knowledge from the Muslims, who acquired them from the Qur’an, which is an ocean of knowledge, and caused streams (of knowledge) to flow from it in the world, for mankind…”



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