In Islam, God and His prophet Muhammad recommended Muslims to preserve their life as much as possible. Even if such preservation in some cases involves the commission of a sin. The purpose of the Islamic sharia is for human to achieve happiness in this world and the hereafter.
The Islamic Sharia was mainly made to protect five things which are the basic rights of human in life (religion, self, mind, offspring, and property).
PROTECTION OF RELIGION
Islam came to protect the right to select one’s religion willingly. Allah (Creator of Heavens and earth) says:
There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion…” Qur’an (2:256)
Therefore, Islam does not compel anyone to embrace its faith as it honored Mankind. Thus, this is the true beauty, kindness, tolerance and justice of Islam when dealing with non-Muslims. At the same time, it was normal for Islam to set laws that help to protect it from anything might affect it. For example, Allah forbade believing in someone else except Him. In Surah An-Nahl HE says:
“And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying], “Worship Allah and avoid Taghut.”” Qur’an (16:36). Taghut means false gods.
Indeed Islam prevents anything that leads to disobedience and disbelieving, by performing the punishments and stopping the guilty according to the law. For example, it forbids exaggeration of obeying the prophets and the righteous, to believe they are agents between Allah and his creation, and to believe that good, bad or future is in anyone else’s hand except Allah.
PROTECTION OF HUMAN LIFE
Life is one of Allah’s gifts to human, and no one has the right to trespass it, even the person himself. Islam guarantees a good and noble life for humanity; thus forbidding humiliation, annoyance, and harm. Allah says:
Because of that, We decreed upon the Children of Israel that whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption [done] in the land – it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one – it is as if he had saved mankind entirely. And our messengers had certainly come to them with clear proofs. Then indeed many of them, [even] after that, throughout the land, were transgressors” Qur’an (5:32).
Furthermore, person’s own life is the first life that Allah forbids aggression upon. If one commits suicide or harms himself, they will be subject to grave and harsh penalties and punishment. God says:
And do not throw [yourselves] with your [own] hands into destruction [by refraining]” Qur’an (2:195)
However, if one is driven by necessity to either kill themselves or to commit any other sin, Allah commands to preserve human life even if this involves the commission of a sin. An example of this is that in Islam eating pork is forbidden and is considered to be a sin, but if a Muslim is in a situation that they have to choose between dying out of hunger or eating pork, then they should eat some of the pork that is only enough for them to preserve their life.
He has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah. But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit] – then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” Qur’an (16:115).
PROTECTION OF MIND
Allah says: “And We have certainly honored the children of Adam and carried them on the land and sea and provided for them of the good things and preferred them over much of what We have created, with [definite] preference.” Qur’an (17:70). Allah has favored and honored Mankind over other creatures with mind. It is also the biggest reason that makes them subject to accountability in this life and in the hereafter. That is why Islam came to protect it by preventing any act that affects mind negatively, like using all types of intoxicants and drugs, which Allah describes as an abomination of Satan’s handiwork.
O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, [sacrificing on] stone alters [to other than Allah], and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful.” Qur’an (5:90).
PROTECTION OF PROGENY
Islam encourages marriage and states its rules, restraints, and duties in a perfect social system, which organizes the relationships between the husband and wife and among the family in general. To do so, Islam forbids adultery, any other shameful deeds, and whatever leads to these deeds. Allah mentions in Chapter Al-Isra:
And do not approach unlawful sexual intercourse. Indeed, it is ever an immorality and is evil as a way.” Qur’an (17:32).
Moreover, It considers a person who is killed defending his honor or that of his family, a martyr and commands its adherents to preserve people’s honor.
PROTECTION OF PROPERTY
Islam urges its people to protect their property and preserve their wealth. In order to protect wealth, it commands them to earn a living, and to make all commercial transactions lawful. Furthermore, it forbids usury, deception and misappropriation of people’s wealth by using wrongful means, Allah says:
And do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly or send it [in bribery] to the rulers in order that [they might aid] you [to] consume a portion of the wealth of the people in sin, while you know [it is unlawful].” Qur’an (2:188).
In conclusion, the Islamic Law does not command anything that is not good for people, and it does not forbid anything that is not bad for them. Islam urges its adherents to protect such necessities so that they may serve them well in the worldly life to live in total peace and security and in the hereafter.